nm - list symbols from object files
nm [-a|--debug-syms] [-g|--extern-only]
[-B] [-C|--demangle[=style]] [-D|--dynamic] [-S|--print-size] [-s|--print-armap]
[-A|-o|--print-file-name][--special-syms] [-n|-v|--numeric-sort] [-p|--no-sort]
[-r|--reverse-sort] [--size-sort] [-u|--undefined-only] [-t radix|--radix=radix] [-P|--portability] [--target=bfdname] [-fformat|--format=format] [--defined-only] [-l|--line-numbers] [--no-demangle] [-V|--version] [-X 32_64] [--help] [objfile...]
GNU nm lists the symbols from object files objfile.... If no object files are listed as arguments, nm assumes the file a.out.
For each symbol, nm shows:
? The symbol value, in the radix selected by options (see below), or hexadecimal by default.
? The symbol type. At least the following types are used; others are, as well, depending on the object file format. If lowercase, the symbol is local; if uppercase, the symbol is global (external).
“A” The symbol’s value is absolute, and will not be changed by further linking.
“B” The symbol is in the uninitialized data section (known as BSS).
“C” The symbol is common. Common symbols are uninitialized data. When linking, multiple common symbols may appear with the same name. If the symbol is defined anywhere, the common symbols are treated as undefined references.
“D” The symbol is in the initialized data section.
“G” The symbol is in an initialized data section for small objects. Some object file formats permit more efficient access to small data objects, such as a global int variable as opposed to a large global array.
“I” The symbol is an indirect reference to another symbol. This is a GNU extension to the a.out object file format which is rarely used.
“N” The symbol is a debugging symbol.
“R” The symbol is in a read only data section.
“S” The symbol is in an uninitialized data section for small objects.
“T” The symbol is in the text (code) section.
“U” The symbol is undefined.
“V” The symbol is a weak object. When a weak defined symbol is linked with a normal defined symbol, the normal defined symbol is used with no error. When a weak undefined symbol is linked and the symbol is not defined, the value of the weak symbol becomes zero with no error.
“W” The symbol is a weak symbol that has not been specifically tagged as a weak object symbol. When a weak defined symbol is linked with a normal defined symbol, the normal defined symbol is used with no error. When a weak undefined symbol is linked and the symbol is not defined, the value of the symbol is determined in a system-specific manner without error. On some systems, uppercase indicates that a default value has been specified.
“-” The symbol is a stabs symbol in an a.out object file. In this case, the next values printed are the stabs other field, the stabs desc field, and the stab type. Stabs symbols are used to hold debugging information.
“?” The symbol type is unknown, or object file format specific.
The long and short forms of options, shown here as alternatives, are equivalent.
Read command-line options from file. The options read are inserted in place of the original @file option. If file does not exist, or cannot be read, then the option will be treated literally, and not removed.
Options in file are separated by whitespace. A whitespace character may be included in an option by surrounding the entire option in either single or double quotes. Any character (including a backslash) may be included by prefixing the character to be included with a backslash. The file may itself contain additional @file options; any such options will be processed recursively.
ar(1) , objdump(1) , ranlib(1) , and the Info entries for binutils.
Copyright (c) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License".
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